Suicide Prevention for Muslim Students

Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior within the Muslim Community

Protective Factors for Suicidal Behavior for Muslim Students

Personal Protective Factors

External/Environmental Protective Factors

Know the Warning Signs

Suicide Prevention Starts with Understanding Depression

Common concerns among Muslim Students Who Experience Depression

You Can Help

Find Someone Else Who Can Help

Student Support Numbers and Mental Health Services

Muslim students often have strong spiritual beliefs that emphasize the mind-body balance and focus on inner tranquility and peace. However, in Islam, as in other religions, completing suicide is considered a great sin; as a result, there is little documentation about the prevalence of suicidal behavior in Muslim communities. However, this does not mean that depression and suicide do not affect the Muslim student community. Also, in some Islamic countries, completed and attempted suicide are against the law. Muslim students who feel depressed or are considering suicide may be reluctant to seek help due to legal concerns or fears of stigmatization. Instead, they may withdraw from others, thereby increasing their risk of suicidal behavior.

Muslim students face problems similar to those experienced by other students, including relationship and family problems, academic and career concerns, anxiety, and depression. Muslims students’ problems may be compounded by spiritual concerns, socioeconomic problems, discrimination, racism, abuse, rejection by society, and a lack of support on campus.

Similar to other students, a number of personal and environmental factors can help protect Muslim students from mental health problems and risk of suicidal behavior (see protective factors below). Although there is little research on specific protective factors for Muslim students, some evidence suggests that religious beliefs are helpful.

Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior within the Muslim Community

RISK FACTORS FOR SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY

  • Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Hopelessness

  • Impulsive or aggressive tendencies

  • Substance use/abuse

  • Previous suicide attempt or previous thoughts of killing oneself

  • Coping style in which problems are kept inside/unexpressed

  • Low self-esteem and lack of self-efficacy

  • Feelings of loneliness, guilt, shame, or inadequacy

  • Academic concerns

  • Financial concerns
  • Conflicts with friends, roommates, peers, or partner

  • Recent loss (e.g., death or breakup)

 
  • Social isolation, particularly from family or spiritual community
  • Conflict with parents about choice of academic major, career, or dating partner

  • Marriage pressures (arranged or otherwise)
  • Decrease in structure (inlcuding personal behavior and social interactions)
  • History of physical or sexual abuse

  • Family history of depression and/or suicide

  • Easy access to firearms or other lethal methods

  • Unwillingness to seek help because of shame in seeking mental health services

  • Lack of access to mental health care


back to top

Protective Factors for Suicidal Behavior among Muslim Students

Protective factors are characteristics, skills, strengths, or resources that help people deal effectively with stressful events and reduce the likelihood of attempting or completing suicide. They enhance resilience and can help compensate for risk factors. Each person has his or her own unique set of protective factors, which can be either personal or environmental. Increasing protective factors can help decrease risk of suicidal behaviors, and students should work to maintain and increase these protective factors.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE FACTORS

  • Strong self-esteem

  • Sense of personal control

  • Impulse control

  • Coping skills

  • Social skills (i.e., communication skills, anger management, etc.)

  • Hope for the future, optimism

  • Reasons for living

  • A healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating, restful sleep, and exercise

  • A healthy fear of risky behaviors and pain

 
  • Sobriety

  • Medical compliance and a sense of the importance of health and wellness

  • Attitudes, values, and norms prohibiting suicide

  • Cultural, religious, or spiritual beliefs that discourage suicide

  • Being happily partnered

  • Being a parent

  • Willingness to seek help and access mental health services


back to top

EXTERNAL/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIVE FACTORS

  • Strong connections to friends, family, and supportive significant others

  • Strong social-support network

  • Responsibilities/duties to others

  • Pets

  • Opportunities to participate in and contribute to school and/or community projects/activities

 
  • A reasonably safe and stable living environment

  • Spiritual well-being

  • Religious involvement

  • Restricted access to firearms or other lethal methods

  • Access to physical and mental health services


back to top

Know the Warning Signs

Although Muslim individuals may vary in how they respond to suicidal thoughts, there are common warning signs that may suggest a student is considering suicide. In particular, it is important to notice and follow up when someone you know is acting out of character. An individual may be at risk for suicide if he or she:

WARNING SIGNS

  • Experiences feelings of hopelessness and helplessness

  • Reports feeling very depressed

  • Experiences anxiety and/or stress

  • Increases their use of alcohol and/or other drugs

  • Engages in reckless behaviors

  • Has physical symptoms

  • Withdraws from family, community, or friends, and from activities once enjoyed

 
  • Says things such as, “I don’t deserve to be here,” “I wish I were dead,” “I am going to kill myself,” or “I want to die.”

  • Is focused on death and dying

  • Talks about wanting to commit suicide

  • Writes poems, letters, or stories about death and/or suicide

  • Starts giving away possessions

  • Prepares for death by making out a will


back to top

Suicide Prevention Starts with Understanding Depression

Depression is a condition that affects people of all ages, genders, races, religions, and sexual orientations. Contrary to what some assume, a person with depression may find it hard simply to “get over it” or “snap out of it” any more than someone with a medical problem can get over his or her illness. Depression can be passed from one generation to the next; sometimes stress or other life events trigger depression or depression results from a combination of factors. When someone is depressed, he or she typically feels a sadness that lasts longer than a few days or weeks, and this state of mind can be accompanied by thoughts of wanting to hurt or kill oneself. Alcohol and drugs may make feelings of depression even worse. Fortunately, depression can be treated.

Recognizing depression is a critical first step in getting yourself or someone you know the help needed. It is important to keep in mind that friends or loved ones may not know how to ask for help, so understanding what to look for is important.

back to top

Common concerns among Muslim students who experience depression

back to top

You Can Help

First and foremost, take concerns about suicidal behavior seriously. It is always better to overreact than underreact to someone’s suicidal thoughts. Here are some things you can do when someone you know is thinking about suicide:

WAYS TO HELP

  • Listen and accept the other person’s feelings

  • Express your care and concern

  • Be empathetic

  • Try not to judge or argue

  • Do not allow yourself to be sworn to secrecy

  • Don’t act shocked by their plans

 
  • Never dare someone to kill themselves

  • Offer to go with the person to seek help from his or her parents, partner, or other family members, friends, a counselor, spiritual leader, or other source of support

  • If possible, do not leave the person alone

  • Seek support or advice from others


back to top

Find Someone Else Who Can Help

WHO CAN HELP

  • Counseling Center

  • Resident Advisers

  • Office of Multicultural Programs and Services

  • Office of Religious Life
 
  • Campus Security

  • Family Members

  • Friends

  • Crisis Line


back to top

Student Support Numbers and Mental Health Services

(Please note that these resources typically operate during business hours only; for 24/7 support, call one of the emergency numbers listed below.)

Emergency Numbers

Additional Resources for Muslim Students

back to top